References for research articles


Works Cited / References:

  1. Whittaker, JL, Thompson, JA, Teyhen, DS, Hodges, P. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging of Pelvic Floor Muscle Function. J of Orthop. Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37:487-498.

  2. Whittaker, JL, Stokes, M.  Ultrasound Imaging and Muscle Function. J of Orthop. Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41:572-580.

  3. Teyhen, DS, Gill, NW, Whittaker, JL, Henry, SM, Hides, JA, Hodges, P. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging of the Abdominal Muscles.  Jof Orthop. Sports Phys Ther, 2008;37:450-466.

  4. Whittaker, JL, Teyhen, DS, Elliott, JM,  Cook, K, Langevin, HM, Dahl, HH, Stokes, M.  Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging: Understanding the Technology and Its Applications. J of Orthop. Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37:434-449.

  5. Hodges, PW, Richardson, CA. Transversus abdominis and the superficial abdominal muscles are controlled independently in a postural task. Elsevier Neuroscience Letters. 1999;265:91-94.

  6. Hides, JA, Wong, I, Wilson, SJ, Belavy, DL, Richardson, CA. Assessment of Abdominal Muscle Function During a Simulated Unilateral Weight-Bearing Task Using Ultrasound Imaging. J of Orthop. Sports Phys Ther, 2007;27:467-471.

  7. Tsao, H. Hodges, PW. Persistence of improvements in postural strategies following motor control training in people with recurrent low back pain. J of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2008;18: 559-567.

  8. Thein-Nissenbaum, JM, Thompson, EF, Chumanov, ES, Heiderscheit, B. Low Back and Hip Pain in a Postpartum Runner: Applying Ultrasound Imaging and Running Analysis. J of Orthop. Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42:615-624.

  9. Whittaker, JL, Warner, MB, Stokes, M. Comparison of the Sonographic Features of the Abdominal Wall Muscles and Connective Tissues in Individuals With and Without Lumbopelvic Pain. J of Orthop. Sports Phys Ther, 2013; 43:11-19.

  10. Teyhen, DS, Bluemle, LN, Dolbeer, JA, Baker, SE, Molloy, JM, Whittaker, J, Childs, JD. Changes in Lateral Abdominal Muscle Thickness During the Abdominal Drawing-in Maneuver in Those With Lumbopelvic Pain. J of Orthop. Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39:791-797.

  11. Hodges, PW, Richardson, CA. Delayed Postural Contraction of Transversus Abdominis in Low Back Pain Associated with Movement of the Lower Limb. J of Spinal Disorders.1998;11:46-56.

  12. Raney, NH, Teyhen, DS, Childs, JD. Observed Changes in Lateral Abdominal Muscle Thickness After Spinal Manipulation: A Case Series Using Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging. J of Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37:472-479.

  13. Wilson, JD, Dougherty, CP, Ireland, ML, Davis, IM. Core Stability and Its Relationship to Lower Extremity Function and Injury. Jof Am Acad of Orthop Surg.  2005; 13:316-325.

  14. Richardson, CA, Snijders, CJ, Hides, JA, Damen, L, Pas, MS, Storm, J.  The Relation Between the Transversus Abdominis Muscles, Sacroiliac Joint Mechanics, and Low Back Pain. SPINE. 2002;27:399-405.

  15. Hides, J, Wilson, S, Stanton, W, McMahon, S, Keto, H, McMahon, K, Bryant, M, Richardson, C.  An MRI Investigation Into the Function of the Transversus Abdominis Muscle During “Drawing-In” of the Abdominal Wall. SPINE. 2006;31: E175-E178.

  16. Hides, JA, Miokovic, T, Belavy, D, Stanton, WR, Richardson, CA.  Ultrasound Imaging Assessment of Abdominal Muscle Function During Drawing-in of the Abdominal Wall: An Intrarater Reliability Study. Jof Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37:480-486.

  17. Watson, T, McPherson, S, Fleeman, S. Ultrasound Measurement of Transversus Abdominis During Loaded, Functional Tasks in Asymptomatic Individuals: Rater Reliability. Am Acad Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2011;3:697-705.

  18. Van, K, Hides, JA, Richardson, CA. The Use of Real-Time Ultrasound Imaging for Biofeedback of Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Contraction in Healthy Subjects. J of Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006; 36(12):920-925.

  19. Hides, J, Hughes, B, Stanton, W. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of regional abdominal muscle function in elite AFL players with and without low back pain. Manual Therapy. 2011;16: 279-284.

  20. Hides J, Stanton W, Mendis, MD, Sexton, M.  The relationship of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus clinical muscle tests in patients with chronic low back pain. Manual Therapy. 2011;16: 573-577.

  21. Schwartz, RG. Diagnostic Paraspinal Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography.  J of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation.  1999;12: 25-33.

  22. Litos, K. Progressive Therapeutic Exercise Program for Successful Treatment of a Postpartum Woman With Severe Diastasis Recti Abdominis. Journal of Women’s Health Physical Therapy. 2014;38(2):58-73.

  23. Gnat R, Saulicz E, Miadowicz B.  Reliablilty of real-time ultrasound measurement of transversus abdominis thickness in healthy trained subjects. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:1508-1515. 

  24. Liaw L, Hsu M, Liao C, Liu M, Hsu A. The Relationships Between Inter-recti Distance Measured by Ultrasound Imaging and Abdominal Muscle Function in Postpartum Women: A 6-Month Follow-up Study.  J of Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41(6):435-443.

  25. Lee, Diane. New ISM Perspective for Treating Women with PGP, UI, POP and DRA .  Found at

  26. Lee, Diane. Diastasis Rectus Abdominis and the Implications for Form & Function of the Trunk after Pregnancy.  Conference Presentations Video 2 found at (outdated see reference 25).

  27. Lee, Diane.  Diastasis Rectus Abdominis and Postpartum Health.  Online article found at

  28. 0–10 Numeric Pain Rating Scale: From McCaffery M, Pasero C. Pain: Clinical Manual, St. Louis, 1999, P. 16. Mosby, Inc.

  29. Stratford,P.,Gill,C.,Westaway, M., Binkley,J. (1995). Patient-Specific Functional Scale.  Assessing disability and change on the individual patients: a report of a patient specific measure.  Phisiotherapy Canada, 47,258-263.

  30. Lee, Diane.  Diastasis Rectus Abdominis and Postpartum Health.  found at

  31. Ritchie, Laura. Image: Muscles of the Pelvic Floor. (2014)  found at (accessed Jan 2016).  

  32. Lee, Diane. Hodges, Paul W. Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: An Observational Study.  J of Orthop. Sports Phys Ther, July 2016;46:580-589.